The high-temperature alloys (HTA), whether based on nickel, cobalt, or a mixture of nickel, cobalt, and iron, are compositionally much more complicated. However, as in the CRA alloys, chromium is an important alloying element, enabling the formation of protective, surface films (particularly oxides) in hot gases.
Large atoms such as molybdenum and tungsten are used to provide solid-solution strength to many of the high-temperature alloys. Those relying on age-hardening for strength include significant quantities of elements such as aluminum, titanium, and niobium (columbium), which can form extremely fine precipitates of second phases (“gamma prime” and “gamma double prime”) known to be very effective strengtheners.
Aluminum can play another role in the high temperature alloys, and that is to modify the protective films (oxides, in particular) that form on the surfaces of these materials at high-temperatures, in the presence of oxygen, etc. Indeed, aluminum oxide is very adherent, stable, and protective.
Unlike the CRA materials, in which carbon is generally a negative actor, the high-temperature HAYNES® and HASTELLOY® (HTA) alloys rely upon deliberate carbon additions, or rather the carbides they induce in the microstructures, to provide the necessary levels of strength (particularly creep strength) for high-temperature service. In some cases, these carbides form during solidification of the materials (primary carbides). In other cases, they form during high-temperature exposure, in the solid state (secondary carbides).
As a consequence of the need for specific carbide types and morphologies in the HTA materials, annealing is a much more complicated subject, especially between steps in the manufacturing and fabrication processes.
The high-temperature HAYNES® and HASTELLOY® alloys are normally supplied in the solution-annealed condition, which is attained by heat treatment at the following temperatures (or within the specified ranges):